Understanding Terrorist and Political Violence. The life cycle of birth, growth, transformation, and demise by Dipak K. Gupta Understanding Terrorist and Political Violence. The life cycle of birth, growth, transformation, and demise.
We must all understand the raprocess so we can recognize it early and stop the process before the radicalized individual does horrible damage.
The basic message we need to give is clear: The Radicalization Process There has been much research, writing, and theorizing about what causes or motivates people to become terrorists.
Studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness among incarcerated terrorists is as low or lower than in the general population. Although terrorists commit horrible acts, they rarely match the profile of the classic psychopath.
They are also not necessarily from a lower socioeconomic status or less educated than their peers.
The commitment to violence is what distinguishes a terrorist from other extremists. This process occurs over time and causes a fundamental change in how people view themselves and the world in which they live.
The exact nature of this process is still poorly understood. Researchers have developed a number of different theories and conceptual models that seek to explain the process by which an individual becomes radicalized, but these theories have not been empirically tested.
Most see three to five stages from beginning to end of the process, from initial exposure through indoctrination, training, and then violent action.
However, different researchers conceptualize these stages differently and use different terminology to identify or explain them. There is broad agreement, however, that many people who begin this process do not pass through all the stages and become terrorists. Many people who become extremists stop short of the violence that is typical of militant jihadists.
Our focus here is on violent jihadism, and specifically on several aspects of the radicalization process about which there seems to be some consensus. While the researchers have not identified causes of terrorism, they have identified three vulnerabilities that may provide sources of motivation or make one more likely to endorse violence.
Perceived Injustice or Humiliation: Violent attack may be perceived as an appropriate remedy for injustice or humiliation. The individual may be searching for a purpose or goal in life that defines the actions required to achieve that goal.
A violent act may be seen as a way to succeed at something that makes a difference. Without struggling to define oneself or discern personal meaning, an individual may choose to define his or her identity simply through identification with a cause or membership in a group.
Many prospective terrorists find in a radical extremist group not only a sense of meaning, but also a sense of belonging, connectedness, and affiliation. Such a mentor might be associated with a mosque or be accessed via the Internet.
The mentor keeps the radicalization process on track. About a quarter of the terrorists in one study had a perceived religious authority who provided specific theological approval for their violent activity.
The increased radicalization of American Muslims is driven in part by a wave of English-language websites designed to promote the militant jihadist doctrine. These websites are not run or directed by al-Qaida, but they provide a powerful tool for recruiting sympathizers to its cause of jihad, or holy war against the United States, according to experts who track this activity.
Jihadist websites and chat rooms provide indoctrination and training to aspiring jihadists and enable them to establish contact with like-minded individuals in the United States or with terrorist groups abroad.
This is the basis for the suicide attacks that are characteristic of violent jihad. The ideology that supports militant jihad is very different in its substance from other forms of extremism or terrorism such as white supremacy groups or eco-terrorism, but they all have four features in common.
All terrorist movements are: The beliefs are regarded as truth in the absolute sense, sometimes supported by sacred authority.Understanding Terrorism: A Social Science View on Terrorism By applying the analytical framework of SIT to different historical and contemporary religious terrorist groups, this course offers students of homeland security and terrorism studies a new understanding of group and individual dynamics within a covert environment.
Understanding the Palestinian Movement. An HIR Series, in four parts. Historical and Investigative Research - 22 April ” did not result in violence against the British imperialists and colonialistas but in wave after wave of terrorist violence against the old and new Jewish inhabitants of the area.
How to explain that? Well. Understanding the Complexity of Terrorist Networks.
Philip Vos Fellman, Southern New Hampshire University. Abstract— Complexity science affords a number of novel tools for examining terrorism, particularly network.
Aug 09, · April 18, Renowned author Gore Vidal rejects the blind "patriotism" expected by government officials and the mainstream media, and investigates .
Understanding Terrorist Ideology KIM CRAGIN CT June Testimony presented before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence on June 12, TESTIMONY This product is part of the RAND Corporation testimony series.
Understanding the Terrorist Radicalization Process. This is directly reposted from the Department of Defense (DOD) – Defense Human Resource Activity: Randy Borum, “Understanding Terrorist Psychology,” in Andrew Silke, ed.
The Psychology of Counter-Terrorism. Oxon, UK: Routledge,