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The research explores how consumers perceive the symbols used to represent Scotland, how these symbols relate to their perceptions of contemporary Scottish identity and their responses to the use of these symbols to promote Scotland and Scottishness.
A series of in-depth interviews revealed that national identity in Scotland was seen to be multidimensional. Activities associated with art and culture, as opposed to business and industry, were identified as primary characteristics of contemporary Scotland.
The traditional symbols of Scottish identity e. Goods and services are recognised to embody signs and symbols that communicate meaning to other individuals and groups. It is emphasised in the literature that in defining identity there is interdependence between the individual and society McCracken This interdependence of self and society is summed up by Berger p Our location within a common world relates to the notion that we live in communities.
The idea of communal consumption, however, is not new. Within specific communities or cultures, certain products or brands become ideologies of consumption HebidgeSchouten and Alexander Unifying these activities is a set of common values that determine consumption patterns and are a direct reflection of the commitment of individuals to the ethos.
In this paper we are concerned with consumption and symbolism of national identity, focusing on the case of Scotland. Political Devolution in the UK inestablishment of the Scottish Parliament and, particularly, the call for total political independence from the Scottish National Party has drawn attention to the importance of national identity within Scotland.
The purpose of this research is to examine how individuals in Scotland perceive the symbols used to represent Scotland, how these symbols relate to their perception of contemporary Scottish identity and their response to the use of these symbols.
In developing and maintaining a favourable self-defining social relationship often subtle and unrecognised with a controlling agent, we are able to construct a favourable self-image.
This type of conformity facilitates the adoption of collective norms and values; identity provides the means by which individuals create and survive social change McCrackenHogg and MichellBerger The construct of a national identity is founded on the idea that the components that characterise a nation tie sub-cultures together within a national boundary.
Keillor and Hult suggest that national identity has four components: However, as Cooke and MacLean point out, in a post- modern society where social structures are rapidly changing, the politics of consumption are inextricably linked to expressions of identity.
National identity is therefore an abstraction, an imagined communion Anderson whereby individuals are united not by a geographical space but by a collective identity Schlesinger Indeed, Bouchetfollowing Despres argues that this identity can be self-ascribed and need not correspond to identities that others impose, with the most important criterion being that individuals want to belong to a group.
Thus, social and cultural differences seem less significant than what is shared. With some products, we develop a relationship such that they come to be important parts of our identity. Others cannot be so readily accommodated. For Belkcertain objects are vital elements of our identity as if physical extensions of our bodies.
These also act as filters to organise and interpret our social existence B each affects the whole psychic and social complex. As communicator, the consumer uses products as bridges to relate to other people. Burke proposed three sources of identification. Material identification results from goods, possessions, things - I am like you because we own the same model of car or have the same taste in clothes, music, books, etc.
Idealistic identification is based on shared ideas, attitudes, feelings, and values. We attend the same church or are members of the same political party, etc. Formal identification results from arrangement, form, or organisation of an event in which both participate.
Identification is the opposite of division. Tomlinson sees debate on consumerism as essentially about stages of cultural transformation B fundamental shifts in values B about confusions over class, regional, generational, and gender identities.
Style, for example, is a visible manifestation of power relations, and a process of creating commodity images c.
Participation in constructing identity, knowledge, and meaning should be a matter of ensuring the survival of the communicating community Deetz, As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from ashio-midori.com View Michael Salmon’s profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community.
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Scotland - Cultural life: Scotland’s culture and customs remain remarkably vigorous and distinctive despite the country’s union with the United Kingdom since the early 18th century and the threat of dominance by its more powerful partner to the south.
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