Ruwan M Jayatunge M.
Consequences of the conflicts in sri think have some server issue. Please Try again later. This is reproduced below. Background The ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka has many root causes and consequences that are closely interlinked.
However, given its complexities, it should not be assumed that these causes are part of linear historical processes where one event led to another. Often many of the issues that may be regarded as root causes arose within a single but extended context and equally as often, simultaneously.
It is primarily within the context of ethnic politics that language and education policy can be located. However, for discussion purposes it is necessary to separate these issues as clearly identifiable themes that would emerge in any analysis of the Sri Lankan conflict.
In general, these themes can be broadly identified as: Demographic Patterns Sri Lankan society is an ethno-religious mosaic and within the ethnic groups, there are clear religious divisions as well. To a certain extent, ethnicity and religion also have a regional basis, which is a significant reason why the Tamil militancy has a strong geographical dimension, which extended to the demand of a separate independent state.
Of the ethnic and religious groups, Tamil Hindus predominate in the Northern Province and maintain a significant presence in the Eastern Province. The Eastern Province is an ethnically mixed area where Tamils, Muslims and Sinhalese are found in sizeable numbers even though Tamils have a slightly higher statistical edge.
Indian Tamils—the descendants of laborers brought from Southern India by the British in the 19th century to work on tea and coffee estates—are concentrated in parts of the Central, Uwa and Sabaragamuwa Provinces.
Sinhalese Buddhists predominate in all parts of the country except the Northern and Eastern Provinces. Muslims have a significant concentration in the Eastern Province, but generally are scattered throughout the country.
Christians maintain a significant presence in the coastal areas as a result of over years of constant European colonial presence and the consequent Christianization of significant numbers of the population in these areas.
However, Christians are found in all parts of the country in small numbers. Malays are mostly concentrated in and around the city of Colombo and the Western Province.
By the time Sri Lanka achieved independence in from the UK, there were expectations that the country would become a model democracy. Universal adult franchise had been introduced in thedemocratic institutions and traditions had been in place and political violence was not an issue.
Moreover, by the s literacy in Sri Lanka was on the rise and there were no serious indicators of economic or social catastrophes of the years to come. However, even before independence, there were clear indications of ethnic politics that were to emerge later.
The Emergence of Ethnic Politics Relations between Tamils and Sinhalese have not always or consistently been antagonistic. This happened only in times of external threats from South India after the formulation of clear Sinhalese and Tamil ethnic or cultural identities in the 9th or 12th century.
Historical chronicles compiled by Sinhalese Buddhist monks defined these wars as campaigns undertaken to protect Buddhism and the Sinhalese nation. Mainly reinforced by formal education, many Sinhalese accept these problematic interpretations as fact today.
In the eyes of many Sri Lankans, these interpretations seem to suggest a long and bloody tradition in which hope for reconciliation is minimal.
Significantly, these interpretations—with their potent and emotional contents—have also found their way into school textbooks, which is an important aspect of social and political socialization in contemporary Sri Lanka. Forces of Sinhalese nationalism perpetuating notions of eternal conflict with Tamils had been gathering strength since before independence.
Many of them were Sinhalese-educated rural people whose nationalist aspirations for cultural transformation, power and status did not automatically materialize with independence. Soon after independence it was clear that a conflict was emerging between Sinhalese-educated rural elite and the English-educated urban ruling elite.
Of this, approximatelywere repatriated to India under the Indo-Ceylon Agreement of Over the years, subsequent governments conferred citizenship rights to the rest. The Ceylon Citizenship Act served to reinforce ethnic politics and reduced the electoral leverage of the Indian Tamils who remain an impoverished community today.
Ethnic Conflict and Language In addition to the barriers imposed by the continued use of the English language as the official language after independence, the emerging nationalist forces perceived that Sri Lankan Tamils had access to a disproportionate share of power as a consequence of educational opportunities in the colonial period and were also disproportionately represented in the civil administration.
Moreover, considerable mercantile interests were also controlled by non-Sinhalese groups. These fears and concerns were a basis for the politics of language that was to emerge. As early aspoliticians proposed resolutions in Parliament to declare Sinhalese the official language, while other amendments proposed both Sinhalese and Tamil as official languages.
A resolution specified that Sinhalese and Tamil would become the languages of instruction in schools, examinations for public services and legislative proceedings. The resolution was approved by 27 to 2 in the Sinhalese-dominated legislature. Committees were established to advise on how these changes were to be implemented, however, there was little progress in implementing the policy.
D Bandaranaike was elected Prime Minister with a main election promise of establishing Sinhalese as the official language of the country, replacing English.
The language issue in many ways brought the Sinhalese-Tamil conflict into the forefront of Sri Lankan politics.
In terms of the dominant strands of Sinhalese nationalism, the Sinhalese language along with the Buddhist religion necessarily had to occupy the pre-eminent position in society.Oct 06, · This social consequences of the Sinhalese-Tamil conflict resulted in inflicting hardship on the refugees who have to fled the war torn area.(Explanation) Therefore, the refugees problems was an important social consequences of the Sinhalese-Tamil conflict as many people living in Jaffna and the northern part of Sri Lanka were forced to become.
The Causes and Consequences of Separatist Conflict in Sri Lanka: Tamil Tigers & the Killing Fields of Sri Lanka - Kindle edition by Peter Lowe.
Download it once and Author: Peter Lowe. Oct 26, · Sri Lanka Causes and Consequences of conflict Social Studies notes: Theme: Conflict in Multi-ethnic societies.
Chp 4 Sec 3 Social Studies [X Ref – Bonding Singapore] How far do you agree? Explain. A) Causes of Sri Lanka Conflict.
|Social Studies - Skills, Knowledge and Beyond: Sri Lanka Causes and Consequences of conflict||This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.|
|About mamafess||Origins of the Sri Lankan civil war The origins of the Sri Lankan Civil War lie in the continuous political rancor between the majority Sinhalese and the minority Tamils. In major Sinhalese and Tamil political organizations united to form the Ceylon National Congress, under the leadership of Arunachalam, to press the colonial government for more constitutional reforms.|
Factor. Explanation. Sinhala only policy. The Sri Lankan Civil War was an armed conflict fought on the island of Sri Lanka. Beginning on 23 July , there was an intermittent insurgency against the government by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (the LTTE, also known as the Tamil Tigers), which fought to create an independent Tamil state called Tamil Eelam in the north and the east of the island.
Oct 26, · In conclusion, the most serious consequence of the Sri Lankan conflict is the political consequence of armed conflict as the outcome of armed conflict is the loss of . The small island of Sri Lanka is a country rich with agricultural treasures from bountiful tea leaves to lush paddy fields.
The Consequences Of Sri Lankas Civil War. Print Reference this However, a negative effect of colonization was that ethnic politics and conflicts were beginning to emerge because the Tamil population believed they.