Soon other young women asked to join her in this work of compassion and our community was born. With the encouragement of the local pastor and bishop, we staffed an orphanage and went to homes of the elderly who needed nursing care. In a new law ordered religious communities not involved in hospital work to either disband or emigrate.
Work, for much of the ancient history of the human race, has been hard and degrading. Working hard--in the absence of compulsion--was not the norm for Hebrew, classical, or medieval cultures Rose, It was not until the Protestant Reformation that physical labor became culturally acceptable for all persons, even the wealthy.
Growing awareness of the multicultural dimensions of contemporary society has moved educators to consider alternative viewpoints and perspectives, but an understanding of western thought is an important element in the understanding of the history of the United States. Traditional Judeo-Christian beliefs state that sometime after the dawn of creation, man was placed in the Garden of Eden "to work it and take care of it" NIV,Genesis 2: What was likely an ideal work situation was History of work ethic when sin entered the world and humans were ejected from the Garden.
Rose stated that the Hebrew belief system viewed work as a "curse devised by God explicitly to punish the disobedience and ingratitude of Adam and Eve"p. Numerous scriptures from the Old Testament in fact supported work, not from the stance that there was any joy in it, but from the premise that it was necessary to prevent poverty and destitution NIV; ; Proverbs The Greeks, like the Hebrews, also regarded work as a curse Maywood, According to Tilgherthe Greek word for work was ponos, taken from the Latin poena, which meant sorrow.
Manual labor was for slaves. The cultural norms allowed free men to pursue warfare, large-scale commerce, and the arts, especially architecture or sculpture Rose, Mental labor was also considered to be work and was denounced by the Greeks.
The mechanical arts were deplored because they required a person to use practical thinking, "brutalizing the mind till it was unfit History of work ethic thinking of truth" Tilgher,p. Skilled crafts were accepted and recognized as having some social value, but were not regarded as much better than work appropriate for slaves.
Hard work, whether due to economic need or under the orders of a master, was disdained. Plato recognized the notion of a division of labor, separating them first into categories of rich and poor, and then into categories by different kinds of work, and he argued that such an arrangement could only be avoided by abolition of private property Anthony, Aristotle supported the ownership of private property and wealth.
A person who worked, when there was no need to do so, would run the risk of obliterating the distinction between slave and master. The Romans adopted much of their belief system from the culture of the Greeks and they also held manual labor in low regard Lipset, The Romans were industrious, however, and demonstrated competence in organization, administration, building, and warfare.
Through the empire that they established, the Roman culture was spread through much of the civilized world during the period from c BC until c AD Webster Encyclopedia, The Roman empire spanned most of Europe, the Middle East, Egypt, and North Africa and greatly influenced the Western culture in which the theoretical constructs underlying this study were developed.
Slavery had been an integral part of the ancient world prior to the Roman empire, but the employment of slaves was much more widely utilized by the Romans than by the Greeks before them Anthony, Early on in the Roman system, moderate numbers of slaves were held and they were treated relatively well.
As the size of landholdings grew, however, thousands of slaves were required for large-scale grain production on some estates, and their treatment grew worse. Slaves came to be viewed as cattle, with no rights as human beings and with little hope of ever being freed.
In fact, in some instances cattle received greater care than slaves, since cattle were not as capable of caring for themselves as were slaves Anthony, For the Romans, work was to be done by slaves, and only two occupations were suitable for a free man--agriculture and big business Maywood, A goal of these endeavors, as defined by the Roman culture, was to achieve an "honorable retirement into rural peace as a country gentleman" Tilgher,p.
Although work was something that would degrade virtue, wealth was not directly related to virtue except in the matter of how it was used. The view of Antisthenes that wealth and virtue were incompatible and the view of the Stoics that wealth should be pursued for the purpose of generosity and social good represented extremes of philosophical thought.
The most accepted view was that pursuit of gain to meet normal needs was appropriate. From the perspective of a contemporary culture, respect for workers upon whom the economic structure of a nation and a society rested would have been logical for the Greeks and the Romans, but no such respect was evident.
Even free men, who were not privileged to be wealthy and were obliged to work along side slaves, were not treated with any sense of gratitude, but were held in contempt. The cultural norms of the classical era regarding work were in stark contrast to the work ethic of the latter day.
Woven into the Christian conceptions about work, however, were Hebrew, Greek, and Roman themes. Wealth was recognized as an opportunity to share with those who might be less fortunate and work which produced wealth therefore became acceptable. Early Christian thought placed an emphasis on the shortness of time until the second coming of Christ and the end of the world.
Any attachment to physical things of the world or striving to accumulate excessive wealth was frowned upon.Work ethic is a belief that hard work and diligence have a moral benefit and an inherent ability, virtue or value to strengthen character and individual abilities.
It is a set of values centered on importance of work and manifested by determination or desire to work hard. Social ingrainment of this value is considered to enhance character through hard work that is respective to an individual's.
If Professor Hill were to rank America's current work ethic based on a scale (with 10 representing moments in our history where we work hardest and 1 where we work laziest), he says he'd give Americans an 8 or a 9 overall.
"The difference is the nature of the work," said Hill. Miranda's non-stop work ethic started in college at Wesleyan University. Miranda wrote an early draft of his first musical, "In the Heights," when he was a sophomore in The show was added to. A CEO asks interviewees if they'd leave their family at Disneyland to test their work ethic — and he expects them to say yes.
Christianity Today Weekly (Weekly)CTWeekly delivers the best content from ashio-midori.com to your inbox each week. Today in Christian History (Daily)A daily newsletter featuring the most. Ethics Reading Assignment: THE MEANINGS OF WORK THROUGHOUT HISTORY C.
Wright Mills Work may be a source of livelihood, or the most significant part of.