One paragraph in this link is so important that I quoted it here:
Authors Co-authored with Sandi Roy, M.
First, it identifies the fundamental problems of elitism and scientism, which permeate and negatively impact PP research and applications. Second, it critiques the conceptual and methodological limitations of PP and PPIs, providing specific examples.
Third, it critiques specific problems in PPIs. Finally, this chapter proposes second wave PP PP 2. The aim of PP 2. This raises a question in the minds of PP practitioners and enthusiasts: Is the field spearheaded by Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi on its last legs?
Has the domain been over-used for commercial interests, especially for the field of positive coaching? Does this predict the emerging of a new form of PP? Defined in simplest terms, PP 2.
It can be argued that the persistent criticism of PP is closely related to the very strategy responsible for its success. With Seligman as the chief supported by three lieutenants, this network was a blatantly by-invitation-only elitist, hierarchical group.
Given the high-profile of the members of this group, this strategy of promoting PP was immediately effective and impactful with the support of big money and big names Wong, b. However, Brown, Sokal, and Friedman demonstrated that there was actually no empirical support for this so-called ratio.
It appears that, until editors are willing to submit PP papers to critical review by experts outside the PP community, there will continue to be PP publications with serious deficiencies. This issue of citation amnesia becomes especially problematic when positive psychologists investigate topics related to existential psychology.
Given that science by nature is incremental and integrative, it is neither scholarly nor ethical for PP researchers to only focus on recent publications by members of the PP community as if they have created a new science and the older work is not worth reading.
Such a myopic view of the literature is partially responsible for the backlash against PP; most researchers would react negatively if a positive psychologist failed to cite their prior work and claimed to have discovered something new.
The Problem of Scientism The second fundamental problem with PP is scientism—the belief that the positivist paradigm of the scientific method is the only way to examine truth claims and the only good and trustworthy method to achieve happiness, well-being, and flourishing.
Such belief in scientism amounts to fantasy and is detrimental to scientific progress Durston, Unfortunately, many of these studies cannot be replicated, and their findings often have little relevance to human needs because their measuring instruments lack construct validity Biswas-Diener, ; Tavris, The division and bitter debates that ensued have hindered the progress of PP; only recently have there been hopeful signs that this divide can be healed with the development of the more inclusive PP 2.
Ironically, the commercialization of PP and the proliferation of self-help books by positive psychologists and practitioners are far worse than the commercialization of humanistic psychology, as derided by Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi. What makes it worse is not only the large scale of it, but also the marketing of pseudoscience in the name of science Coyne, Recently, Wong, Ivtzan, and Lomas in press have pointed out the ways in which scientism and the uncritical applications of PP findings to organizations are counterproductive.
An implicit culture of scientism permeates every aspect of the PP community, from research to practice. Many positive coaches use science as their calling card, when they have little understanding or training in scientific research in psychology.
In sum, scientism and elitism are a bad combination, responsible for many of the conceptual and methodological problems in the research and applications of PP examined in the next section.
Unfortunately, this assumption has never been empirically supported. There is also no evidence that the negative effects of very traumatic experiences simply disappear as a result of happiness-inducing interventions.
In short, the goal of positive interventions is to build some positive variables in order to increase some positive outcomes e. Logic dictates, however, that this will unnecessarily—and ironically—limit PPIs to people who are least in need of help.
This rather rose-tinted approach is far too narrow to be descriptive of the entire range of human experiences. The positive-only focus is based on binary or dichotomous thinking; that is, one can either focus on the positive or negative.
We also add that from the Yin—Yang perspective, opposites can complement and nurture each other to contribute to our survival and well-being. Any adequate explanation of human behavior needs to incorporate the negative or dark side of human existence Ivtzan et al.Dissertation Introduction. A dissertation introduction is the first thing that a reader sees when reading your dissertation.
It basically creates the first impression of your dissertation, and this first impression will last till the end of your dissertation or thesis. A response to Sheehan's attempted paradigm shift in Heidegger studies Ingo Farin Sheehan is not content with the mere rebuttal of the mistaken hypostatization of being or the firm establishment of the alternative thesis of the foundational correlativity of man and being.
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The introduction gives the objectives of the paper. It tells the reader what the research is all about. It is arguably the most important chapter in a thesis proposal. The third chapter, methodology, is a discussion of the plan to be used in research.
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This is a working draft agenda. Preparing for a Thesis Defense Kate Hemeon, M.A. Family Studies and Gerontology Department Upon the approval of your thesis committee and the appointment of an external examiner.