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The innovative potential of cell phone technology in an evolutionary perspective Since its inception billions of years ago, the evolution of life on earth has been shaped by two highly consistent physical constraints: The first of these conditions implies that the diversification of living forms and behavior takes place mainly as a differentiation within physical space.
In operational terms, this means that tight correlations exist between spatial location and the prevalence of particular ecosystems, species and breeds.
On the human level, this is reflected in racial, ethnic-linguistic and many other differences along geographical lines - as well as in the high salience of face-to-face gatherings for the maintenance of social collectivities and institutions and for the satisfaction of physiological and psychological individual needs.
The second constraint can be easily substantiated by the empirical regularity that more advanced levels of interdependence and organization are only found among organisms that co-exist for longer periods at the same physical locations.
Of course, widespread interaction also occurs within moving herds of antelopes, swarms of birds or schools of fish, but they tend T mobile external forces result in rather simple segmentary structures - not to be compared with the elaborated societies realized by stationary bees, ants or primate apes.
On the level of human societies, the same regularity can be convincingly demonstrated by comparing nomadic and sedentary populations. In more recent times, the crucial importance of tightly organized factories and densely populated urban areas for the development of industrialized societies has again demonstrated that the achievement of higher levels of societal complexity and economic production is still based the physical proximity of many human individuals in very stable locations.
The restraining effects of these two physical factors seem to increase in the course of biological and socio-cultural evolution, because they collide more and more with some other outcomes of this same evolution: Thus, animals are T mobile external forces more affected than plants, because they can communicate among each other, and because the need to be physically near and stationary clashes with another most valuable capacity for survival and active adaptation: In fact, the functional significance of locomotion is much degraded by the fact that a while moving, communicative potentials are minimized or even totally suspended, b as a result of bodily movement, spatial distances are created which are incompatible with the maintenance of communicative relations.
On the human level, such incompatibilities are amplified insofar as in comparison to animals: Thus, while the increase in population density has certainly facilitated primary interpersonal communications by furthering spatial proximitiesincrements in locomotion have again reduced it, because whenever individuals are walking on streets, driving on roads, cruising on ships or flying in planes, they are trapped in public traffic orders characterized by highly restricted and standardized codes of communication.
Evidently, the unavailability of translocal communication has not prevented human beings from establishing interpersonal bonds of solidarity and cooperation between geographically distant local groups e.
However, the interaction and internal development of all these translocal aggregations could not be based on the primary medium on which all social life is based: It had instead to be based on two other foundations: In modern societies individuals are highly accustomed to leading lives characterized by constant painful discrepancies between spatial and social distance.
On the one hand, they have to tolerate extreme spatial proximity with masses of totally indifferent others e. Certainly, the landline phone has eliminated the prerequisite of physical proximity, but on the other hand it has preserved or even reinforced the need to stay at specific places. While there are conditions under which individuals on the move are at least able to continue face-to-face interaction e.
Thus, the main function of fixed telephones was to reinforce the social integration of stable sedentary settings like cities or bureaucratic organizations: Apart from easing the violation of laws and the realisation of exchanges without leaving traces Aronson, Therefore, the telephone plays a role in the urban concentration of financial and business activities.
The telephone helped in the development of larger metropolitan systems with a more diversified and complex structure it is also a central element in the work organisation and communication inside the skyscrapers, the symbols of corporate capitalism that arose at the beginning of the 20th century.
Wireless technologies are certainly at the root of all innovations that make communication compatible with spatial mobility. Remarkably, this portability was first realized for receiving-only devices, while transmission technologies e.
Seen in this very broad evolutionary perspective, the significance of the mobile phone lies in empowering people to engage in communication, which is at the same time free from the constraints of physical proximity and spatial immobility.
In fact, there are reasons to assume that it would have been equally welcome in all human societies and cultures in the past: At the same time, however, this emancipation from physical constraints has to be paid for 1 with an almost exclusive limitation to bilateral contacts, and 2 with increased uncertainties about the current subjective states and environmental conditions of the contacted partners.
The Expansion of cell phone usage as a multidimensional challenge for sociological theory and research Since its inception in the late 19th century until recent years, the telephone has received very meagre attention from sociology and the media sciences Lasen a: This deficit only illustrates the larger tendency to ignore the impact of technologies on the unspectacular aspects of everyday life.
Even Erving Goffman, while focusing completely on everyday life, has almost ignored the telephone: Evidently, the cell phone seems to evoke much less intellectual enthusiasm and scientific research endeavours than the World Wide Web.
In the theoretical perspective of Manuel Castellsfor instance, only the Internet is given the status of a Mega-Innovation that really counts, while mobile communication facilities are almost totally neglected.
Due to the rapid increase in cell phone technology, the total number of phones worldwide has for the first time surpassed the number of TV-Sets in This diffusion has occurred worldwide, rather independently of different cultural habits, values and norms.
Thus, cell phones have become popular even in rather "technophobic" contexts like Italy, where computers and other modern technologies have a difficult stand Fortunati 53and especially in Scandinavian countries where people traditionally are introverted and silence in talk is highly valued Puro Type or paste a DOI name into the text box.
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Send questions or comments to doi. Treaty Between The United States Of America And The Union Of Soviet Socialist Republics On The Elimination Of Their Intermediate-Range And Shorter-Range Missiles (INF Treaty). ashio-midori.comations for human individuals. The immanent functional expansion of phone usages.
Many studies show that cell phone usage is subject to functional expansion, because users gradually change habits and learn to apply the new technology for a growing variety of purposes and in .
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The T tank was a Soviet light infantry tank used during many conflicts of the s and in World War ashio-midori.com was a development of the British Vickers 6-Ton tank and was one of the most successful tank designs of the s until its light armour became vulnerable to newer anti-tank guns.
It was produced in greater numbers than any other tank of the period, with more than 11, units manufactured.