Military to Military Seymour M. The so-called moderates had evaporated and the Free Syrian Army was a rump group stationed at an airbase in Turkey. Lieutenant General Michael Flynn, director of the DIA between andconfirmed that his agency had sent a constant stream of classified warnings to the civilian leadership about the dire consequences of toppling Assad. The jihadists, he said, were in control of the opposition.
Ownership[ edit ] The size and profit -seeking imperative of dominant media corporations create a bias. The authors point to how in the early nineteenth century, a radical British press had emerged that addressed the concerns of workers, but excessive stamp dutiesdesigned to restrict newspaper ownership to the 'respectable' wealthy, began to change the face of the press.
Nevertheless, there remained a degree of diversity. In post World War II Britain, radical or worker-friendly newspapers such as the Daily HeraldNews ChronicleSunday Citizen all since failed or absorbed into other publicationsand the Daily Mirror at least until the late s regularly published articles questioning the capitalist system.
The authors posit that these earlier radical papers were not constrained by corporate ownership and therefore, were free to criticize the capitalist system. A table of six big media conglomerates inincluding some of their subsidiaries.
Westinghouse or General Electricthe information presented to the public will be biased with respect to these interests. Such conglomerates frequently extend beyond traditional media fields and thus have extensive financial interests that may be endangered when certain information is publicized.
According to this reasoning, news items that most endanger the corporate financial interests of those who own the media will face the greatest bias and censorship. It then follows that if to maximize profit means sacrificing news objectivity, then the news sources that ultimately survive must be fundamentally biased, with regard to news in which they have a conflict of interest.
Advertising[ edit ] The second filter of the propaganda model is funding generated through advertising. Most newspapers have to attract advertising in order to cover the costs of production; without it, they would have to increase the price of their newspaper.
There is fierce competition throughout the media to attract advertisers; a newspaper which gets less advertising than its competitors is at a serious disadvantage.
Lack of success in raising advertising revenue was another factor in the demise of the 'people's newspapers' of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The product is composed of the affluent readers who buy the newspaper—who also comprise the educated decision-making sector of the population—while the actual clientele served by the newspaper includes the businesses that pay to advertise their goods.
According to this filter, the news is "filler" to get privileged readers to see the advertisements which makes up the content and will thus take whatever form is most conducive to attracting educated decision-makers.
Stories that conflict with their "buying mood", it is argued, will tend to be marginalized or excluded, along with information that presents a picture of the world that collides with advertisers' interests.
The theory argues that the people buying the newspaper are the product which is sold to the businesses that buy advertising space; the news has only a marginal role as the product. Sourcing[ edit ] The third of Herman and Chomsky's five filters relates to the sourcing of mass media news: They concentrate their resources where news stories are likely to happen: Although British newspapers may occasionally complain about the "spin-doctoring" of New Labourfor example, they are dependent upon the pronouncements of "the Prime Minister's personal spokesperson" for government news.
Business corporations and trade organizations are also trusted sources of stories considered newsworthy. Editors and journalists who offend these powerful news sources, perhaps by questioning the veracity or bias of the furnished material, can be threatened with the denial of access to their media life-blood - fresh news.
This relationship also gives rise to a "moral division of labor", in which "officials have and give the facts" and "reporters merely get them".
Journalists are then supposed to adopt an uncritical attitude that makes it possible for them to accept corporate values without experiencing cognitive dissonance. Flak[ edit ] The fourth filter is 'flak' not to be confused with flack which means promoters or publicity agentsdescribed by Herman and Chomsky as 'negative responses to a media statement or [TV or radio] program.
It may take the form of letters, telegrams, phone calls, petitions, lawsuits, speeches and Bills before Congress and other modes of complaint, threat and punitive action'. Business organizations regularly come together to form flak machines. The GCC was started up by Burson-Marsteller, one of the world's largest public relations companies, to attack the credibility of climate scientists and 'scare stories' about global warming.
The term "flak" has been used to describe what Chomsky and Herman see as efforts to discredit organizations or individuals who disagree with or cast doubt on the prevailing assumptions which Chomsky and Herman view as favorable to established power e.
Unlike the first three "filtering" mechanisms—which are derived from analysis of market mechanisms—flak is characterized by concerted efforts to manage public information. Because if people are frightened, they will accept authority.
Manufacturing Consent was written during the Cold War. Chomsky updated the model as "fear", often as 'the enemy' or an 'evil dictator' such as Colonel GaddafiPaul BiyaSaddam Hussein or Slobodan Milosevic. This is exemplified in British tabloid headlines of 'Smash Saddam! The Sunday Times ran a series of articles in accusing activists from the non-violent direct action group Reclaim The Streets of stocking up on CS gas and stun guns.
Communism once posed the primary threat according to the model.
Communism and socialism were portrayed by their detractors as endangering freedoms of speech, movement, the press and so forth. They argue that such a portrayal was often used as a means to silence voices critical of elite interests. Chomsky argues that since the end of the Cold Waranticommunism was replaced by the "War on Terror", as the major social control mechanism.
Following the events of September 11,some scholars agree that Islamophobia is replacing anti-communism as a new source of public fear.Start studying Chapter 5: Sound Media. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Search. Radio and the recording industry have a symbiotic relationship that. radio and television game shows. The rationale behind government regulation of the radio industry was based on the concept that.
In yesterday’s world of enterprise security, there were a few well-known points of weakness for the bad guys to target in their attacks, which made defending against threats, well, much simpler.
INSURGE INTELLIGENCE, a new crowd-funded investigative journalism project, breaks the exclusive story of how the United States intelligence community funded, nurtured and incubated Google as part. The history of the Internet begins with the development of electronic computers in the s.
Initial concepts of wide area networking originated in several computer science laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, and France. The US Department of Defense awarded contracts as early as the s, including for the development of the ARPANET project, directed by Robert Taylor and.
wide variety of sources, including television, the internet and newspapers. Terrorists seek to publicize their cause, influence public opinion and have become aware of the impact of mass terrorism, mass media, symbiotic relationship. Introduction between the public and the government, where the media seems to provide the lines of.
@War: The Rise of the Military-Internet Complex - Kindle edition by Shane Harris. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets.
Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading @War: The Rise of the Military-Internet Complex.